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English and American Literature 18th - 20th century

Publié le 24/06/2023

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Red Badge of Courage — realism in the novel, 2.

Christina Rossetti, 3.

Vorticism, 4 The black population in Heart of Darkness, and in Kipling's work, 5.

The war poets (two groups), 6.

Emily Browning's husband's monologue (Robert Browning), 7.

Two visions of colonialism, 8.

Walpole, Poe, Ezra Pound, Eliot (cats), 9.

Wuthering Heights (which character goes against the values of the Victorian era), 10.

Wuthering Heights – what character traits of the characters reflect the era, 11.

Compare the schools of poetry 12.

Author of the first detective novels, 1.

Red Badge of Courage (19th century, Stephen Crane) ○ first American novel presenting war realistically (civil war) ○ does not depict a world of moral absolutes, focused on the individual psychology Detailed and Objective Descriptions: Realism aims to present a faithful and accurate representation of reality.

Crane achieves this by providing vivid and meticulous descriptions of the war setting, including the physical environment, the soldiers' appearances, and the brutalities of combat.

The language used is precise and evokes a sense of immediacy, enabling readers to envision the scenes.

Rather than an orderly line of enemy troops, the young soldiers face an enemy shrouded in smoke.

The battlefield scenes in the novel depict disorder, chaos, and fear.

This realistic depiction of war is the antithesis of idealized descriptions of glorious victories and brave soldiers. Psychological Realism: Crane delves into the thoughts, emotions, and internal struggles of his protagonist, Henry Fleming.

The novel explores Henry's fear, doubt, and desire for courage in the face of danger.

The psychological realism allows readers to engage with the character's inner life and understand the complexities of human nature. Authentic Dialogue: Realistic dialogue is another essential element of the novel.

Crane captures the speech patterns and vernacular of Civil War soldiers, depicting their camaraderie, banter, and moments of fear or desperation.

The conversations among the soldiers feel genuine and provide insights into their shared experiences. Portrayal of the Mundane (tego co przyziemne): Realism often portrays the mundane aspects of life alongside the extraordinary.

Crane includes details of soldiers' daily routines, such as waiting, marching, and performing daily tasks like cooking or cleaning.

This emphasis on the ordinary aspects of war lends authenticity to the narrative and presents a more complete picture of the soldiers' experiences. Absence of Heroic Idealism: Realism typically challenges or subverts romanticised notions of heroism.

Crane's novel eschews traditional heroic tropes and instead presents the realities of war, including the fear, confusion, and moral ambiguity experienced by soldiers.

The protagonist, Henry Fleming, grapples with his own internal struggles rather than embodying a purely heroic figure. Lack of Sentimentality: Realism rejects sentimentality and overly emotionalized portrayals.

Crane's narrative style is characterised by a direct and unsentimental approach, avoiding melodrama or sentimental exaggeration.

The novel portrays the war and its consequences of a detached, objective tone, allowing readers to form their own emotional responses. 2.

Christina Rossetti Winter: My Secret was published in Rossetti’s first collection, Goblin Market and Other Poems.

This collection largely consisted of non-devotional poetry and differs from the more religious verses on which Rossetti concentrated in her later publications.

The most typical thing about this poem is Rossetti’s innovative experimentation with form, imagery, and metaphors, a trait for which she is known.

The tone of Winter: My Secret is, without a doubt, coy and teasing in nature.

The speaker playfully addresses an unknown listener, engaging him or her in dialogue as she refuses to reveal a closely-guarded secret, despite the listener’s obvious pleading.

While the gender of the speaker is not clear, some believe it to be a woman, citing as proof the references to a ‘shawl’ and a ‘veil,’ which are items of clothing typically associated with women.

The poem is not formally structured, consists of four stanzas of varying length and irregular rhyming patterns.

The rhyme scheme is largely constructed of rhyming couplets or triplets, which increase the pace at which the poem is read and adds to a sense of passion and playfulness. 3.

Vorticism Vorticism, literary and artistic movement that flourished in England in 1912– 15.

Founded by Wyndham Lewis, it attempted to relate art to industrialization. It opposed 19th-century sentimentality and extolled the energy of the machine and machine-made products, and it promoted something of a cult of sheer violence. Vorticist literature aimed to capture the energy and vitality of the modern world through bold imagery, experimental language, and a focus on the intersection of art and technology.

Notable figures associated with vorticism include Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis. 4.

In “Heart of Darkness,” the black population, particularly the African natives in the Congo, are depicted through the lens of imperialism and colonialism.

They are often presented as primitive, savage, and dehumanised figures, reinforcing the racist attitudes prevalent during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Conrad's narrative relies on stereotypical depictions of Africans, portraying them as nameless and faceless masses, lacking individuality or agency. As for Rudyard Kipling's literary works, it is important to acknowledge that he was a product of the colonial era, and his writings often reflected the prevailing attitudes and ideologies of the time.

Kipling's portrayal of the black population varies across his works, but it is generally characterised by a colonial perspective that reinforces racial hierarchies and power imbalances. In some of his poems and stories, such as “The White Man's Burden” and “The Jungle Book,” Kipling portrays the white colonial powers as the civilising force and the nonwhite populations as in need of guidance and control.

This perspective reflects the paternalistic and racist attitudes of the era, perpetuating notions of white superiority and the “civilising mission” of the colonial powers. 5.

THE GREAT WAR POETS – the poets who fought in the Great War and wrote poetry based on their experiences or attitudes; can be divided into patriotic and romantic Georgian poets (usually those who died during the war) and brutally honest and realistic poets expressing disillusionment of war (mostly those who survived) 6.

Robert Browning Robert Browning, a prominent Victorian poet, was known for his dramatic monologues.

A dramatic monologue is a poetic form in which the speaker, often a fictional character, delivers a speech that reveals their thoughts, emotions, and perspective on a particular situation or event.

Browning's monologues are characterised by their psychological depth, intricate characterization, and exploration of complex moral and ethical dilemmas. My Last Duchess (1842), written by Robert Browning, is a dramatic monologue which deals with the Victorian social issues about the condition of women.

The poem explores the class consciousness and the Victorian morality code, where a woman is strictly adhered to certain social norms. The Duke begins by showing the envoy a portrait of his former wife and uses it as a starting point to discuss her character and behaviour.

As the monologue progresses, it becomes evident that the Duke is controlling and possessive.

He reveals that he was displeased with the Duchess's friendly and indiscriminate nature, accusing her of not valuing his noble status and being too easily impressed by others. The Duke mentions incidents where the Duchess treated everyone equally, showing politeness and appreciation to all, including men of lower social standing.

He refers to her accepting a gift of cherries and thanking the giver with the same degree of warmth she reserved for him.

These acts of kindness and openness bother the Duke, as he believes they undermine his position and suggest a lack of exclusivity. The Duke eventually reveals that he took matters into his own hands and ordered the Duchess's death.

He states that he gave commands to have her silenced, and implies that he himself did not physically harm her.

The poem ends with the Duke turning his attention back to the envoy, suggesting that he might marry again and expressing his expectation that the next wife will better understand her place and appreciate his rank and possessions. 7.

Two visions of colonialism Joseph Conrad: Conrad's works, including "Heart of Darkness," present a critical and often dark vision of colonialism.

His writings delve into the psychological and moral complexities of imperialism.

"Heart of Darkness" explores the destructive effects of European colonialism in Africa, portraying the brutal exploitation, dehumanisation, and corruption that take place in the Congo.

Conrad's portrayal emphasises the moral decay and the psychological impact on both the colonisers and the colonised.

His work highlights the hypocrisy, greed, and violence inherent in the colonial enterprise, challenging the notion of European superiority and questioning the ethical foundations of imperialism. Rudyard Kipling: Kipling's perspective on colonialism is more ambivalent and reflects a more sympathetic portrayal of the colonial project.

While acknowledging the challenges and complexities of imperialism, Kipling often presents a paternalistic view of the colonisers as benevolent guides and rulers.

His writings, such as "The White Man's Burden" and many stories set in India, often portray the British as bringing order, progress, and civilization to the colonies.

Kipling's works frequently emphasise the responsibility and duty of the colonisers, while also suggesting the benefits.... »


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